Types of temperament

  • Jun 04, 2018

The founder of the doctrine of temperaments is Hippocrates. It was he who first drew attention to the fact that people differ in the speed of the course of mental processes. Based on these observations, four main types of temperament were later identified: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic. Temperament is given to a person once, at birth, it is primary. Then a person gets education, acquires habits and develops character. But the temperament remains for life, it determines the emotionality of a person, impressionability, speed of reaction to external stimuli, stability or instability of the psyche.

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If you understand the differences in temperaments, and learn to determine what kind of psychotype this or that person refers to, you will find the secret key to the human psyche. You can anticipate the reactions of each individual person to a particular life situation. This knowledge can be useful to the manager, in order to know what kind of work can be entrusted to the employee, with which he can do splendidly, and what tasks should not be set before him. The type of temperament is very important in family life: we always want to know about the reactions and inclinations of our partner. It is important only to remember that even the character of a person can be changed a little, but the temperament - he is for life, there's nothing to be done. The most successful teams for responsible work, for example, cosmonauts, polar explorers, researchers are selected with regard to temperaments. This determines the result of the project as a whole and the psychological situation in the team. At present it has become fashionable to form a work collective of people of certain psychotypes, sometimes they even offer an interview at the interview. So the manager tries to find employees with a certain temperament to create a favorable environment in the team.

Characteristics of temperament types

There are 4 types of temperament, but there are about 10 mixed or intermediate species. Determine the type of temperament can be based on what qualities are more in this person. Outwardly determine the temperament of a person will help the overall activity. Observing the surrounding people, one can notice that some are always in the center of attention: they are mobile, active, talking loudly, everyone notices. Others, on the contrary, are more contemplating and in a passive state, immersed in their world.

The second criterion for determining temperament is the emotionality of a person. This is expressed in a rapid change of mood, resistance to stress and other external influences.

Temperament type: melancholic

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The melancholic weakly reacts to external stimuli. He is constantly immersed in himself, his thoughts and plans. If complex obstacles arise, the melancholic can not overcome them independently. A difficult life situation can result in depression or a nervous breakdown. Melancholic is very vulnerable and emotional, any situation is long experienced by him inside, analyzed and remembered. Melancholics tend to self-obscure and self-analysis. Melancholics are idealists, they want to see the world around them and people are perfect and impeccable. With such a vital attitude, it is very difficult to live, because the world is always far from ideal. Movements and external emotions in melancholics are inexpressive, calm. They do not have perseverance and energy, they quickly get tired, they have low working capacity. Melancholics love solitude and do not tolerate noisy companies.

Due to its high sensitivity, melancholics can create heartfelt masterpieces. It is known that the melancholy were Lermontov, Gogol, Yesenin, Chekhov, Levitan.

Melancholic is difficult to adapt in a team, it is always inconspicuous and sad. But it does not matter, there are professions where a person can unleash his potential alone. Therefore, do not be ashamed of being withdrawn or wearing the mask of a shirt-guy, because each person is different for his personality.

Temperament type: choleric

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Choleric is easy to recognize by gusty fast movements. This is the brightest and most recognizable type of temperament. The choleric does everything with fury and passion: works, loves, hates. His nervous system is very strong, but at the same time unstable, he is very quickly excited. Choleric people easily achieve the desired, are the undisputed leader in any company and team. Very fond of competition, competition, but do not know how to lose. Any failure causes choleric rage and lack of restraint. Choleric people like to argue, but the result of a dispute is not the clarification of the truth, but the self-assertion of this powerful type.

Choleric is a very addicting nature, can quickly squander his strength at the expense of his health, not paying attention to it. Creators with the temperament of choleric can create exciting works: romantic, stormy and impetuous. These works are conquered from the first note and from the first line. Temperament of the choleric was possessed by Pushkin, Byron, Beethoven.

Choleric people like and are afraid of the team. They are fond of being open and welcoming to everyone, everyone notices and is interested in everything. And their frankness, quick temper and uncompromisingness are afraid of them. In a fit of anger, the choleric is able to blame everyone around, sometimes without foundation, but then quickly depart.

Temperament type: sanguine

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The sanguine person has a strong balanced nervous system. A very nice type of person, open to the outside world, agile, fast, friendly. Sanguine most often is the soul of the company, he is always in a good mood, jokes and rejoices. He likes to be in the center of attention of a large number of people, he tries to avoid being alone. It is remarkable for its excellent performance, very quickly learns any kind of activity. Easily switches from one sphere of application of one's forces to another, quickly gets used to a new collective and environment. Productivity of sanguine work directly depends on how much it interests him. If interest is lost, the work can be abandoned or made with indifference. A small minus of this temperament is obsession.

Live, fun and energetic sanguine creators create works of art for themselves: energetic and expressive. The Sanguinians were Honore de Balzac, Mark Twain, Rossini and Vivaldi.

Type of temperament: phlegmatic

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The phlegmatic is characterized by a strong, stable nervous system. To any case, the phlegmatic approaches thoroughly, having carefully considered and weighed. The productivity of labor phlegmatic is high, despite the fact that it is very slow, differs persistence, endurance and diligence. External stimuli do not have a strong impression on the phlegmatic psyche. He can remain calm in difficult life situations, not succumbing to panic and emotions. Phlegmatic speech is smooth and expressionless, feelings are hidden deep. Phlegmaticians are afraid to make decisions and think about the team, so they are not suitable for the role of leader. But they obey well and yield to persuasion. Phlegmatic people are sensitive sensitive nature, they are capable of empathy. Phlegmatic temperament had fabulist Krylov, composers Borodin and Glazunov.

What type of temperament is better?

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It does not matter which psychotype you belong to, pure temperament is very rare. Although the researchers noticed that the most vivid historical figures had a strong character and a pronounced temperament. This is understandable, because only having perseverance and dedication, you can achieve the goal. So do not be shy about your outstanding temperament features.

The composition of the society by types of temperament in percentage is as follows:

  • sanguine persons 49%;
  • melancholic 29%;
  • choleric persons 14%;
  • phlegmatic substances 9%.

The type of temperament does not affect a person's abilities, one can be a talented melancholy, or one can be a reckless sanguine person. From the temperament depends:

  1. Speed ​​and speed of information perception.
  2. Rhythm of life and activity.
  3. Intensity of mental reactions: will power, emotionality. Relation to the outside world.
  4. .This is revealed in the openness that extroverts possess. And introverts, on the contrary, are closed.

The test of Eysenck's temperament type

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Most often, we can not decide for ourselves what type of temperament we are on. Thinking about the abilities of your self, we are deceitful, giving out wishful thinking. Psychologists have developed special tests to determine the type of temperament, where answering questions, you can understand yourself. The proposed test was developed by the English psychologist Hans Eysenck, consists of 57 questions and is one of the most popular. For each question there are 2 answers: "yes" and "no."Try to answer as truthfully as possible.

  1. Are you drawn to new vivid impressions?
  2. Do you have a need to understand and sympathize with your friends?
  3. Are you an innocuous person?
  4. Do you easily give up your plans?
  5. Do you need time for reflection before the action?
  6. Do you keep this promise to the detriment of your interests?
  7. Are you prone to mood swings?
  8. Do you have to think carefully before you say something or do it?
  9. Do you feel unhappy, even without reason?
  10. Is it true that for the sake of winning a bet you are ready for almost anything?
  11. Do you hesitate to contact a stranger?
  12. Are you able to get so angry that you lose your temper?
  13. You can commit a rash act, giving in to emotion?
  14. Are you tormented by the thought that you did not say anything or did something wrong?
  15. Do you think it's better to spend time with a book than to communicate with people?
  16. Is it easy for you to hook?
  17. Do you adore companies?
  18. Do you have thoughts that you feel ashamed to tell people?
  19. Do you have energy lifts when you are ready to roll mountains, and recessions when you feel lethargic?
  20. Are you sure that it's better to have few friends, but tested?
  21. Are you a dreamer?
  22. Do you react with a cry for screaming?
  23. Do you often feel guilty?
  24. Do you have only positive habits?
  25. Do you know how to relax and "break away" in a fun company?
  26. Do you often have nerves tense as much as possible?
  27. Are you considered to be a cheerful energetic person?
  28. After completing a case, are you wondering what could be done better?
  29. Are you comfortable with a large crowd of people?
  30. What happens when you share a rumor?
  31. Does your sleep disturb violent thoughts?
  32. To find out any question, do you contact your friends or read in the book?
  33. Do you have heart palpitations?
  34. Do you strive to perform work that requires tension?
  35. Do you get a shiver?
  36. If you know that your words will remain a secret, will you speak out like everyone else?
  37. Do not you like companies that tease each other?
  38. Are you prone to irritation?
  39. Do you choose work based on speed of action?
  40. Even if everything ended successfully, you are playing a mental scenario, how could it have ended badly?
  41. Do you like to move slowly?
  42. Do you allow yourself to be late for a responsible meeting?
  43. Do you have horrible dreams?
  44. Do you easily get a conversation with a stranger?
  45. Do you often get a sense of pain?
  46. Will you be unhappy if you are permanently deprived of friendly communication?
  47. Do you consider yourself unbalanced?
  48. Are there any people among your environment that you can not stand to breathe?
  49. Are you sure of yourself?
  50. Do not you accept criticism?
  51. Is it possible to experience the pleasure of a party?
  52. Are you visited by the thought that you are worse than others?
  53. Can you animate an inert society?
  54. Do you agree to discuss a topic in which you do not understand anything?
  55. Do you think about your health?
  56. Do you allow yourself to tease others?
  57. Do you suffer from lack of sleep?

Decoding the answers to the Eisenc test

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Now you can begin analyzing the answers. All 57 questions are divided into 3 groups, each of them corresponds to certain qualities of the individual. If your answer is the same as the one below, you can put yourself 1 point. And then calculate the number of points. Record the number of points in each group.

Authenticity Response Group

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The answer was "yes" to the following questions: 6, 24, 36. Negative answer to the questions: 12, 18, 30, 42, 48, 54. After a simple calculation, we can check whether we were honest when answering questions. If you get an amount of more than 5 points, your answers are untrue. Most likely, with the answers you were guided by the desire to please yourself and others. If the test showed untruthfulness of answers, further analysis can not continue.

Response group for emotional stability

In this section, you can score up to 24 points. Positive answer to questions 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 31, 33, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 47, 50, 52, 55,57. The less you score, the more stable psyche you have. And vice versa, the more you count the points, the more sensitive and hypochondriatic you are.

Response group for determining the attitude to the outside world

The fewer points you gain in this group, the more closed person you are( introvert), and the more points, the more likely that you are an extrovert. The answer is yes to the questions: 1, 3, 8, 10, 13, 17, 22, 25, 27, 37, 39, 44, 46, 49, 53, 56. Negative answer to the questions: 5, 15, 20,29, 32, 34, 41, 51.

Now, on the photo below, mark the points of the points. Horizontally - points from the group of introverts-extroverts, and vertically - the value of responses to emotional stability.

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The found point is a reflection of your temperament. The farther from the intersection of the axes it is, the more pronounced your temperament. The proximity of the location of the point to one of the axes indicates how mixed your temperament type is.

Having determined your psychotype, you can reasonably avoid uncomfortable situations, choose the right type of activity. Knowing your inner advantages will help you achieve your goals and develop the strengths of your personality. Types of temperament. Video

On the psychological types of temperament according to Pavlov.