Thunderstorm of autumn-spring period - bronchitis. Often it begins with a common cold and other respiratory diseases - sore throat or sinusitis. How to treat bronchitis correctly, only the doctor will say. Many people avoid using strong medicines and are treated with folk remedies. Often this is the cause of the transition of manifestations of bronchitis in the chronic course of the disease. Antibiotics for bronchitis should not be taken alone - always consult your doctor.
Scheme of treatment of bronchitis and pneumonia with antibiotics
Treatment of inflammation of the respiratory tract is performed in a hospital or outpatient. Light bronchitis is successfully eliminated at home, chronic or acute manifestations require hospitalization. Bronchitis and pneumonia are insidious diseases, so do not self-medicate. For adults and children, doctors prescribe different antibiotics and apply different healing procedures. So, antibiotics for bronchitis and the treatment regimen depend on:
- having a tendency to allergies;
- character of the disease( acute, chronic);
- type of pathogen;
- parameters of the drugs used( speed and spectrum of action, toxicity).
Antibiotics have a powerful effect on the human body, and their thoughtless use can harm, not help. For example, the use of strong drugs in the prevention of bronchitis has the opposite effect. The constant intake of antibiotics inhibits immunity, promotes the emergence of dysbiosis, the adaptation of strains of the disease to the drugs used. Therefore, it can not be said that antibiotics are the best remedy for bronchitis. Treatment of obstructive bronchitis with antibiotics is prescribed in the case of:
- if there is a high temperature( more than 38 degrees), which lasts longer than 3 days;
- purulent sputum;
- protracted nature of the disease - treatment for longer than a month does not bring recovery.
- manifested severe symptoms during exacerbation.
- if sputum analysis revealed pathogens, bacterial or atypical in nature.
What antibiotics to drink at an bronchitis to adults? A specific treatment regimen is applied based on the severity of the disease, its course and the age of the patient. With bronchitis of acute type, drugs of the penicillin group are prescribed - Amoxicillin, Erythromycin. With chronic it is possible to use Amoxiclav, Augmentin. If this group of drugs does not help, they switch to the use of Rovamycin, Sumamed, etc.
For the elderly people are prescribed Flemoxin, Azithromycin, Suprax, Ceftriaxone. If sputum analysis was not performed, then a wide range of antibiotics are preferred: Ampicillin, Streptocillin, Tetracycline, etc. After the analysis, the doctor prescribes directed drugs. The decision on what antibiotics to take when bronchitis in adults is taken by the attending physician. In any case, the following treatment guidelines should be adhered to:
- Drugs are taken strictly according to the instructions( dosage, schedule) at regular intervals.
- It is inadmissible to skip the reception of tablets.
- If the symptoms of bronchitis have disappeared - you can not arbitrarily stop treatment.
Unlike adults, the treatment of bronchitis in children with antibiotics is extremely undesirable and dangerous. It is allowed to use drugs only if there is a suspicion of an infectious type of disease. Children should take penicillin group drugs. For children with asthma, the use of azithromycin, erythromycin is allowed. The rest of the treatment scheme of the child is standard and is aimed at eliminating symptoms. Assign:
- bed rest, child care;
- preparations to reduce temperature;
- remedy for cough and sore throat;
- application of traditional medicine.
New generation antibacterial drugs groups
Penicillins( oxacillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin).The group of drugs includes such as "Amoxiclav", "Augmentin", "Panklav", etc. Have a bactericidal effect, affect the formation of the wall of the protein of a harmful bacterium, as a result of which it perishes. Preparations with it are considered the safest. The only negative is the ability to excite allergic reactions. If the disease is started and drugs with penicillin do not have the proper effect, then they switch to strong drugs.
Macrolides. An extensive group of drugs, which include erythromycin, oleandomycin, midecamycin, dirithromycin, telithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin. Bright agents of macrolides on the pharmacological market are the preparations "Erythromycin", "Claricin", "Sumamed".The mechanism of action is directed at disrupting the vital activity of the microbial cell. On the level of safety, macrolides are less harmful than tetracyclines, fluoroquinols, more dangerous than penicillins, but they are good for people who are allergic. In combination with penicillins reduce their effectiveness.
Fluoroquinolones( pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, hemifloxacin, moxifloxacin).On the market, the drugs are presented by "Afelox", "Afenoxin", and medications that are of the same name with the main active substance, for example, "Moxifloxacin".This group is used as a medicine for bronchitis. It is prescribed only if the previous two groups of antibiotics did not affect the causative agent of the disease.
Cephalosporins( active substances - cephalexin, cefaclor, cefoperazone, cefepime).By type of causative agent, the patient is prescribed "Cephalexin", "Cefuroxime axetil", "Cefotaxime".Limited to the effect on some pathogens. For example, such antibiotics absolutely do not affect pneumococci, chlamydia, microplasmas, listeria. Preparations of the first generation are practically not absorbed into the blood, and therefore are administered in the form of injections. What are the most effective antibiotics
Amoxicillin. Form release - capsules and granules. Adults take 500 mg( 1-2 capsules) 3 times a day, if the bronchitis in severe form is doubled to 1000 mg. The child is prescribed from 100 to 250 mg per day, depending on the age. To facilitate the reception for children, a suspension is prepared - in half a glass of water, the antibiotic is diluted and shaken. The method of administration is only oral, by injection the drug is not administered.
Sumamed. It is used for bronchitis and pneumonia. It is not used by patients with liver and kidney dysfunction. Produced by tablets, capsules, powder for suspensions. Dosage for adults - 500 mg per day, course 3-5 days. Children dose determined by weight - 5-30 mg of medicine per 1 kg. More accurate and correct dosage will be told only by a specialist, do not neglect medical opinion.
Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin. They are positioned as antibiotics for chronic bronchitis in adults( over 18 years of age).Highly effective in pneumonia, sinusitis, pyelonephritis, infections of various etiologies. The use of this antibiotic is accompanied by a plentiful drink. Avoid direct contact with ultraviolet light of any origin. The form of release - tablets. Dosage - 1-2 times a day for 500 mg.
Cefazolin. Produced by powder for the preparation of infusions and injections. Methods of administration - only intravenously and intramuscularly. For adults, 3-4 injections per day for 0.25-1 g. Therapeutic course - 7-10 days. The child's dose is determined proportionally to the weight of the child - 25-50 mg per 1 kg. Stabbing - 3-4 times a day. If patients have renal dysfunction, dosage adjustment is performed.
Side effects of
Because of its nature, antibiotics have an extensive list of side effects. From the gastrointestinal tract - is diarrhea, vomiting, dysbiosis, constipation, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, flatulence, dry mouth. From the urogenital organs - itching, impotence, kidney failure, blood in the urine. From the locomotor system - dizziness, arthritis, muscle weakness, numbness of the limbs, paralysis. Skin reactions are hives, itching, allergic reactions.