Lovers houseplants call this tropical beautiful flower butterfly because of the unusual shape of petals. Care at home for the phalaenopsis orchid is to strictly observe the regime of watering, lighting and providing the root system with enough light and air. Phalaenopsis orchid is a lady with a character. How to curb it, read on.
- 1 What is different from other types of Phalaenopsis orchids?
- 2 Which pot to choose?
- 3 level of humidity
- 4 Orchid Phalaenopsis: transplant
- 5 Prepare substrate for planting
- 6 temperature and illumination level
- 7 Reproduction flower
- 8 Diseases of phalaenopsis. Pest Control
What distinguishes phalaenopsis from other types of orchids?
Specialists consider this flower to be the most unpretentious of all epiphytes and often call it "orchid for beginners".You can learn phalaenopsis on a short stem up to 70 cm high, a rosette of 4-6 dense, arranged in two rows, leaves and a long, slightly curved peduncle. From other orchids it is distinguished by a complete absence of tuberidia( false bulbs) - oval thickenings on stems in which plants store water reserves.
Phalaenopsis is equipped with two types of roots:
- support protruding in different directions, which it naturally clings to rocks and tree bark;
- air for obtaining moisture directly from the air, on top they are covered with a layer of velaman - a special absorbent fabric, which has a green tint.
As buds with unobtrusive pleasant aroma blossom in phalaenopsis gradually, the flowering period can last 2-6 months. There is almost no rest period, therefore the plant can blossom 2-3 times a year( usually 2 times, in autumn and in spring).
Depending on the species Phalaenopsis petals can be painted in soft purple, pink, light lemon, light green or white shades. The lip - the medial leaf in the center - is always brighter and has a contrasting crimson, chocolate, olive green or dark purple color. He can also be present in the form of strokes on the petals.
Tip! Very unusual phalaenopsis hybrids called novelti. Since their peduncles do not die off, but only "hibernate," and then grow again, the orchid is covered all year round with small colored buds. Blossoms novels up to 5 times a year.
Which pot to choose?
Phalaenopsis in nature is able to grow only on supports, so it is necessary to ensure similar conditions. To support his trunk and facilitate the care of Phalaenopsis Orchid in the home, you can select the following types of pots:
- heavy clay container is sufficiently stable and can easily bear the weight of the flower, but ground it quickly dries up;In addition, due to the tight adherence of the roots to the porous surface during transplantation, in order to avoid their injury, the pot must be broken;The solution to the problem may be containers covered with glaze;
- plastic is convenient, easy to clean, and the moisture in it does not so quickly evaporate;If you decide to stay on a plastic container, get a transparent pot, because for normal development, the roots need light;In this case you will be able to observe the condition of the roots and soil and adjust the irrigation frequency;
- woven bamboo baskets: another good variant of the phalenopsis capacity, because the roots will have enough room for adhesion;When transplanted, they can easily be separated from smooth bamboo trunks.
Advice! The flower pot should have holes not only at the bottom to remove excess moisture, but also the side walls. By means of such apertures, the air exchange of the roots is regulated.
Phalaenopsis is a tropical flower, therefore it is able to grow and develop only under conditions of sufficient moisture. However, it should not be filled. To ensure proper care for the phalaenopsis orchid( see photo) at home, remember the rule of two "P": first, the earth must "get wet," and then "dry out".
In winter, it is enough to water every 2 weeks, in spring and autumn once a week, and in summer after 2-3 days. But the frequency of irrigation directly depends on the temperature in the room and the level of illumination. After all, in cloudy weather, the substrate dries much slower than on hot, sunny days.
The ideal way of watering is to immerse the container with a flower into the water for 15 minutes. In winter, this time can be reduced to 5 minutes. So this kind of flowers actively "drinks" in the daytime, it is better to make watering in the morning. Water, caught on buds, can cause them damage, so you should act very carefully. Caring for a miniature mini-orchid at home is similar to the above and does not have any special differences.
. The flower, which is poured with hard water, will eventually cover not very aesthetically whitish bloom, so it is better to defend it orfilter. To saturate with oxygen, the liquid can be poured several times from one container to another. For watering, distillate is also used, however, in this case, the missing micronutrients are added to it.
Advice! To understand whether phalaenopsis needs watering, it's easy. When there is a shortage of water, its roots become light silvery.
Phalaenopsis orchid: transplant
When purchasing a flower in the store, the terms of its nearest transplantation can be clarified from the seller. Most often it is sold in an already prepared substrate, consisting of bark of trees, which is quite enough for food. The transplant may be needed only:
- with a greatly expanded root system, when the flower pot becomes close or strong to the roots;
- lack of nutrients in the substrate;
- disease of the plant;
- with improper care at home for the phalaenopsis orchid may need resuscitation of the plant;In most cases, the cause is an overabundance of moisture and decay of the roots.
To prevent root injuries more often than once every 2-3 years, the plant should not be transplanted. Do this only in the period of active root growth in the spring.
Advice! If the substrate on which the plant is planted does not dry out after watering for a week, then it is too dense and must be replaced urgently. Otherwise, the roots will begin to rot.
Preparing substrate for planting
Of course, you can purchase a substrate in a flower shop, but you can also prepare it yourself. The soil mixture for this plant should preferably be prepared from a mixture of pine bark and a small amount of activated carbon. Sphagnum( marsh peat moss) is added only on top if the roots dry out quickly. It is replaced 3 times a year.
When collecting bark, it is more convenient to collect one that has already begun to lag behind the tree trunk itself. It should not be too dark and contain too much resin. You can get pine bark in any sawmill.
Saused pieces and parts of wood are carefully cleaned, and the bark itself is crushed to 1-1.5-centimeter pieces. For these purposes it is most convenient to use a meat grinder with a large grate. Then, to disinfect and remove insects from it, the future substrate is poured with water and boiled for 15 minutes, periodically mixing. Transplant the plant can begin only after the complete drying of the soil mixture.
Extra fertilizing of the flower is optional. If desired, you can buy a special fertilizer, designed for orchids.
Tip! With a sharp change in the composition of the substrate, the plant can get sick. Therefore, when transplanting necessarily leave part of the old soil( unless, of course, it is not infected by anything).
Temperature and light level
For the growth and flowering of phalaenopsis, it is sufficient to keep the temperature in the room at 18-25 ° C.If it exceeds 25 ° C, phalaenopsis will intensively increase the foliage, but the blossom will be worse. It is desirable that at night it decreases by 4 ° C, otherwise on the leaves and peduncles there will be a sweet sticky discharge, which worsen its appearance. In winter it is allowed to reduce the temperature for a short period to + 12 ° C.
Actively build up the roots and leaves phalaenopsis is capable of sufficient light, so the windows in the room should go to the southwest or southeast. But the light must be scattered, otherwise burns will appear on the leaves. You can try to test experimentally, in which place the orchid grows better, alternately rearranging the pot on different windows.
If there is a lack of light, phalaenopsis may begin to stretch excessively and cease to bloom. To create comfortable conditions, he needs to provide a 12-hour light day, that is mandatory lighting, especially in the winter.
Tip! In order for the flower to have the right shape, without bends, the pot is 2 times a month turned 180 ° per month. But during the bud formation, the orchid should be left alone for a while.
Reproduction of the flower
With proper care at home, the phalaenopsis orchid is capable of rapid multiplication:
- by dividing the stem: cutting the top of the plant( peduncle with kidney capture) and its rooting;Thus, old plants are often rejuvenated;They do it about a month after flowering;
- sockets: it must have at least 6 leaves;The cut places are treated with charcoal;And the plant is immediately planted in a pot;
- cuttings: for this, 10-15 cm cuttings are prepared, having 2 knots with kidneys in sinuses, laid out over moistened soil( sand or moss) and covered with a film to form roots;The lower cuttings are considered to be the strongest;
- with the help of "children"( cages) formed on peduncles, in this case they must necessarily have sufficiently formed their own roots.
Unlike other orchids, phalaenopsis babies are not on peduncles, but near the base, cervix or directly on the substrate. Since they appear infrequently, to stimulate their growth, you can use special hormonal drugs, which are applied in the places of sleeping buds.
substrate. Specialists practice and propagate this plant with seeds. However, at home, providing them with a nutrient medium is very difficult. After all, this will require placing them in a special substrate with mold mycorrhiza-like fungi for 3-9 months.
Tip! children to stimulate growth can also try to influence the plants via the differential temperature( night time, it should be below 5-10 ° C) and the cessation of watering to 10-15 days.
Diseases of phalaenopsis. Pest
While taking care of Phalaenopsis Orchid in the home to avoid the appearance of pests: mites, thrips, whiteflies, scale insects or mealybug. The most dangerous is the worm, which sucking the juice, is able to weaken or even destroy the plant. A sign of his appearance is the presence of white plaque and sticky drops. Especially attentive should be in winter with a sharp change in temperature and humidity.
Since insects die rapidly at elevated temperatures, when they occur orchid can be poured with warm water heated to 45-55 ° C.Helps to cope with them and wiping plants with alcohol or soapy water. With the dominance of pests, they are destroyed by imidacloprid, phytoverm, actar or actellicum.
Illnesses of orchid phenelopsis are associated with improper care at home:
- anthracnose: presence of dark round spotsPink bloom, arising from excess moisture or water retention in the leaf axils;At the beginning of the disease, the spoiled leaves are removed, and the places of the cut are treated with iodine, Skor, Ritomil or Mikasan are used in neglected cases;
- Powdery mildew: another dangerous fungal infection that can lead to the death of the bush;Externally it looks like a puruura-whitish bloom on the foliage;Get rid of it can be timely spraying Skorom or colloidal sulfur;
- rust: uncommon mainly in the weakened plants, leaves with spores of the fungus are removed, slices treated with an alcohol, and the plant itself is sprayed Ritomilom, disputes or Mikasanom;
- black or sooty fungus( black film on the leaves);For the destruction of the fungus, the use of baseball benate is used;
- leaf rot: a fairly common disease that occurs with excess moisture;In case of its occurrence, the plant is sprayed with any fungicide.