- 1. How does hearing develop in a newborn?
- 1.1. Table of development of hearing from birth to 1 year
- 1.2. Deviations in hearing development
- 2. How is vision formed?
- 2.1. Table of development of vision from birth to 1 year
- 2.2. Possible pathologies of vision
The child experiences stress at birth. A sudden change in the life that awaits him outside the mother's womb could become even more stressful, but nature has ensured that from the first days of life the children have adapted to the new reality gradually. The hearing and sight of the baby are not the same as those of adults - it will take time to develop and become full. When a newborn begins to hear and see how the processes of development proceed and how much time is required for them, we will consider in detail in this article.
. How does hearing develop in a newborn?
Science says that the child begins hearing on the 16-17th week of development, that is, even as a 4-month-old fetus. He can hear the music, the voices and other sounds that surround his mother well. When he appears on this light, from the first days of life he is able to recognize those sounds and melodies that he heard most often, especially the mother's voice.
Firstly, newborn children react only to loud sounds, and they do not pay attention to quiet voices or tearful TV - this is normal and does not mean that the baby has a hearing loss. You can check it with light clapped hands near the child's ear or sonorous rattles. That he heard these sounds, his reaction will say in the form of:
- movements with pens and legs;
- changes in facial expressions;
- eye movements;
- wince or fade.
So, when does the newborn begin to hear? Now we know what else is in the womb. Turn your head in search of a source of sound, it will only be by the end of the third month - by this time he will already learn to hold his head, and the thirst for knowledge of the surrounding world will contribute to the development of hearing and sight. By 5 months, the crumb will be able to react to intonation and distinguish the voices of others.
Hearing development table from birth to 1 year
|Up to 5 weeks||With a loud sound, it opens its eyes wide, blinks, flinches. In a dream, it can move or even wake up.|
|1,5-4 months||Looking for a source of sound with eyes, also freezes and opens eyes. Towards the end of 4 months begins to turn the head toward the sound.|
|4-7 Months||Listens, turning the head to the sound.|
|7-9 Months||Learns to locate sound that is output from the side and below|
|9-12 months||Can determine the location of sound from all sides: top-bottom, left-right side, front-back side|
NotIt is worth trying to diagnose your child's hearing badly - trust this business specialist. Nevertheless, you must always be observant. The baby should be shown to the doctor if you notice any of the following:
- the child does not react in any way to sharp loud sounds;
- the kid does not express any emotion when you are talking to him;
- at the age of 4 months he is not interested in musical toys, conversations of others and other sources of sounds;
- the child often touches his ears( this sign can also talk about increased pressure or infection).
It is useful to know and what the complications with the hearing in a newborn cause. If you are important to your baby's health, keep in mind the following factors:
- rubella or measles during pregnancy;
- hobby for alcohol and drugs;
- reception during pregnancy of antibiotics and other toxic medicines.
To the fact that the child does not hear well, can cause and pathological birth. Do not be afraid to be safe: if you see that any of the above signs begin to appear, immediately pay attention to them by the district pediatrician. Many health problems can be successfully solved due to the fact that they were discovered in time.
How is the vision formed?
The newborn's vision also functions from the first days of life, although it is immediately vague and formed during the first year. After giving birth, children see, but everything is different: some are already ready to learn the world around them through sight, while others only blink and cover their eyes.
For 1 year the sight of the baby is formed definitively. This process consists of the following stages:
- Immediately after birth, the child sees only gray tones and can only distinguish light or darkness.
- In 1 month on a general fuzzy background are allocated large items.
- In 2 months - the formation of central vision. The Kid can already focus the look on the objects, not even looking at them motionless, but "gliding" over them, with the eyes of moving people.
- At 3 months, the child begins to distinguish between red and yellow.
- At 4 months the baby already sees well. He distinguishes other colors, but without shades;He looks with interest at his pens and toys, which can already be grabbed and held. Distance to the objects he has not yet been evaluated, as well as their volume( for example, he can try to grab a painted flower).
- At 5 months the child discerns all colors. Confidently enough toys and pulls them in the mouth, which indicates the development of coordination of movements.
- At 6 months the photosensitivity of the children's eyes approaches to an adult( 2/3 of the adult's level).
- In 7-8 months the baby distinguishes between geometric figures.
- At 8-12 months the child's eye is already able to distinguish parts of objects and shades of colors( we recommend reading: when the child starts to distinguish colors well?).
By the end of the first year, vision is formed completely. The child sees the world around as adults. Now it's worth taking care to keep this vision.
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Vision development chart from birth to 1 year
|Up to 3 months||Traces the movement of an object / toy first horizontally( along an arc), a little later - vertically. Closer to 2-3 months formed a complex of animation - looking into the eyes of an adult, smiling.|
|4-6 months||The main object of study is its own handles. He studies them in detail, connects them at the level of the tummy. Begins to see distant objects( toys).|
|7-10 Months||Binocular vision is fully developed. Very small objects( up to 0.5 cm), for example, bread crumbs, become objects of close interest. He tries to take them with his fingers.|
|11-12 Months||Reviews various items. Interested in pictures in books.|
Possible pathologies of vision
In order for the child to have deviations in the formation of vision, serious reasons are needed. They are usually associated with the course of pregnancy. Causes of poor vision or blindness can be:
- rubella, which the mother had suffered during the bearing of the baby;
- toxemia, toxoplasmosis or toxocarosis.
Careful observation of the child's behavior will help to quickly recognize the developing pathology. Mom can independently carry out a simple test: close the baby one eye and show the toy, and then repeat it with the other eye. If the baby's eyes are okay, he will necessarily react to a beautiful subject. By the end of the first month of life, he should already be able to at least briefly focus his eyes.
forces. Many children up to six months can mow slightly - this is normal, since binocular vision will be formed only by week 6Consciously see the baby will start after 12 weeks. Then he will begin to work synchronously with both eyes, and while he does not know how, it can seem as if he is looking at each eye separately. If after 6 months nothing has changed, you should be concerned about the likelihood of developing strabismus and seek medical attention. Unaesthetic appearance is not the main danger of strabismus. If it is not corrected, it can lead to blindness.
To promote the correct development of vision in a newborn, it is necessary to use simple methods from an early age:
- the child should try to keep more in a vertical position - so it's easier to focus the view;
- when the newborn begins to see well, do not quickly move it, you need to give time to focus;
- objects or persons should be at a distance of about 40 cm from the baby's face, in order to avoid the development of strabismus;
- do not allow poor lighting in the children's room.
Psychologists advise to avoid stressful moments for mom and all relatives with whom the child lives, if possible, do not change the appearance - hair, glasses, mustache and beard. It is recommended that the facial expression is not too diverse. At first it is better to keep the look familiar to the newborn.
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